|TEMPERATE HARDWOOD FORESTS - "HAMMOCKS"
SUBSTRATE: Soils generally contain more organic matter
and moisture than adjacent, well-drained sandy soils.
TOPOGRAPHY: On slopes between upland pinelands and
lake margins, or floodplain forests and marshes; also in some uplands
protected from fire.
VEGETATION: In typically narrow bands; varies from
warm temperate, mixed deciduous-evergreen flora (e.g., oaks, hickories,
beech, magnolia) in north to subtropical evergreen flora in south;
many species of trees, but few species of herbs, except for diverse
ferns in peninsular hammocks; hammocks on the Apalachicola Bluffs
contain Torreya taxifolia, a tree on the verge of extinction,
as well as other endemic plant species.
FAUNA: Diversity of vertebrates, including bobcat,
gray fox, white-tailed deer, southern flying squirrel, Mississippi
kite, barred owl, pileated woodpecker, eastern diamondback rattlesnake.
PROCESSES / DYNAMICS / ABIOTIC FACTORS: Continually
being modified by changing and variable environment; combinations
of species in some hardwood forests were not present before European
HUMAN IMPACTS: Amount of land in hammocks has changed
little over past 200 years, but composition of plant species has
been affected by human disturbance; increasingly threatened by residential
/ commercial development, e.g., around Gainesville and Tallahassee.
ANIMALS AND PLANTS NATIVE TO ECOSYSTEM: List of selectable
animals and plants
native to the Hammocks ecosystem, with detailed descriptions and
pictures on each.